[youtube=http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oM9p830RefY&feature=youtu.be]

法主公,全稱為都天蕩魔監雷御史張聖法主真君,簡稱為法主聖君都天聖君等,俗稱法主公客家人聖君爺道教正一道祭祀神祇,亦有人將祂歸類於佛教化的道教閭山派。福建廣東一帶相信,法主公有監察神的神格,代表天帝監察民眾,會在每月朔望到天庭稟報人間善惡,然後懲罰惡人,緝拿邪魔。該神信仰,流行於福建福州泉州漳州廣東潮州梅州等地。法主公信仰,在17世紀安溪閩南人傳入臺灣,以臺北最為盛行。高雄市美濃區則是客家族群信奉法主公的主要地域

源流

據考證,「法主公」意為法術高強的神明。法主公確有其人,一稱是張慈觀蕭朗瑞章朗慶結義三兄弟共稱的「法主三公」,是以法力聞名的道教三大神。不過民間較普遍的說法,為單指張慈觀。閭山派有說法認為護法神五營神將中營的統帥則是哪吒太子。東營張將軍即是「法主公」;也有說法稱,東、南、西、北四營的主帥「張、蕭、劉、連」四聖,即是法主公結義四兄弟。

張慈觀幼名自觀,別名。福建永泰縣道士(一說為閩清1024年1069年),相傳在世有神通,能除妖伏魔。清高宗乾隆年間所著的《德化縣誌》載:「煉性於蕉溪山石鼓岩,見石牛山夜火晶熒,知有魈魅,因往其處。魅方於人家迎婦,輿徒甚盛。觀出掌,令人從指縫窺之,魅悉現形」。

張慈觀曾經在結義弟兄輔助之下,躍入九龍潭石牛洞的潭水之內,以劍刺殺為患福建永春已久的毒蛇精,故許多廟宇的法主公塑像,是一手持,一手握。張慈觀神通頗為出名,也因為去除蛇妖的功績,被視為降妖伏魔的大羽化後被當地人奉為當地神明,因為張慈觀以神通、法術著稱,因此被尊為「法主公」。據說,宋朝封贈為「嘉惠大化真人」;明武宗亦曾張慈觀為「張聖法主真君」。

[編輯] 傳說


不只有除蛇妖,福州閩南一帶也有法主公,力克蝗災、計降螃蟹精、盜雨、捉雷神、送瘟神等救民的傳說。

法主公故事因為各地百姓口傳,版本略有不同,較為流行的故事情節梗概如下:

[編輯] 遇仙得桃


早年,法主公張慈觀為一戶農家子弟,家境貧寒,並未就學讀書,以砍柴、為人修理鋤頭柄為生,故人稱「張鋤柄」。一天上山伐木,迷路走至深山,遇見兩人在石桌上對弈,他仔細觀察,發現兩人仙風道骨、氣宇不凡,於是躲在一旁觀棋,但他隨即被兩人發現。兩人並不責怪,只是拿了一顆給他,他一咬桃子,發現味道奇苦無比,味如黃連,但是張覺得這兩人是神仙,於是硬是喫了半顆,愈喫愈苦,只好把另半顆棄之於地。兩人笑說:「何不能完食?爾食其半者,又須多修數年矣。不能喫苦,焉能得道?」隨即消失。

張回鄉之後,結庵修道,不但識字,還能吟詩作文,書法王羲之王獻之的風格。鄉里百姓都認為他已經成仙了,稱之為聖者、真人。

[編輯] 以蛙克蝗


有一次蝗蟲成災,鄉民都來請示,張真人卻命鄉民捉幾隻青蛙來,真人自取線香,在青蛙背後燒灼作記號,與青蛙喃喃數語後放走,眾人皆感怪異,過了不久,背後有黑斑的青蛙大顯威能,把蝗蟲都喫光了,鄉民保住了農產,都來感謝真人。福建省南平市延平區樟湖鎮溪口村法主公廟祭典時,都會放生青蛙,作為感謝。

[編輯] 釋道兼修


張真人後來離開福建,遍訪名山,與蕭朗瑞、章朗慶二真人,義結金蘭,三兄弟於閭山旌陽真君宮中修鍊,受賜風火輪;又習太乙天尊法術,均善道法

張也修佛法,一次至南海普陀山拜山觀音大士曾賜張真人枝,真人一拿,即化為寶劍,返回途中,於龍王宮前遇龍樹菩薩,龍樹菩薩傳之以空法,並以經書裝在錦囊內,贈予張真人,真人開錦囊,取經欲讀,手上錦囊即化作能裝鬼神的「乾坤囊」,張真人甚感激兩菩薩的傳授,也立志為佛門護法,在福建德化縣蕉溪石鼓岩結草庵修煉。

[編輯] 賭咒鬥法


當地有一位術士自認道法高深,於是與真人相約鬥法。真人不願意,就說:「吾法不如君,君可回矣。」術士自得意滿回家,驕傲地告訴鄰居眾人。眾人卻說,這是因為張真人懶得理他。術士大怒,於是在張真人庵前設一高壇,大罵道:「何以自負如此!」真人曰:「君術甚驗,我服矣。」術士不聽,舉起鐵尺拍案,念動真言,「狼洛沮濱瀆矧喵盧椿....」等數百字,突然間風雷大作,青天霹靂不斷。真人在壇下笑著說:「即便賭鬥,何苦甚多字句?」突然大吼「唵、啞、吽」三字,風雷立止。又取劍指其壇上,於空中書一「震」字,高壇天搖地動,極其搖晃,術士幾欲墜落,真人引劍指地,又吼一聲「住」,於是地震停止。術士狼狽而去,從此不知所蹤。

[編輯] 計降蟹精


張修煉時遙見妖怪五通」(「五通」是妖怪的習稱,數目或是種類皆不一定。)化身門閥公子,率羣魔變化的僮僕工丁等,詐娶民女。張真人駕著風火輪飛到,伸出手掌,令鄉民由其指縫窺視之,羣魔皆現原形。

真人於是化身成抬轎僕丁,卻把新娘踢落花轎,用隱身法將她隱蔽,隨即令人接走。真人自己爬入轎中,又變為新娘,羣魔不覺。行進之間,張真人大喝一聲,現出本相,拔劍殺出。這時「五通」抵擋不住,要求放掉武器,空手對仗。真人允之,將寶劍插在地上,一跺腳步,足跡入石一尺三寸。「五通」遂效法之,足跡只入石一寸,種種跡象,足証真人法力較高,五通拔腿就跑。真人取劍,追趕「五通」,一步步地走上矗立的石壁,石壁形成寬八寸、深一尺三寸的石溝,留下四十五個腳印。「五通」見狀大驚,知道真人法力不凡,於是打算智取。

「五通」想要把張真人引入石壺洞,石壺洞相傳能困住仙人,又稱「困仙洞」,因昔年有一僧閉關修道,將成正果。卻遭到天魔魔女化作美女誘惑,差點破了色戒,僧人平素有道行,卻仍然心思不寧,於是發憤誦了十萬遍阿難尊者克服摩登伽女楞嚴咒,以修煉身心,足足讀誦了七年。唸完時,在洞內壁上書「唵吽吒唎道人許入不許出」十一個金字,來警惕自己,絕不能破戒,但寫完時道果已成,隨即涅槃,由洞口一縫得道飛昇。但此洞,卻因高達十萬遍楞嚴咒的加持,得到護法神天龍八部的擁護,從此能困住仙人。

「五通」拚命奔跑,將真人引入石壺洞中,自己奔出大喊「唵吽吒唎道人許入不許出」,洞口隨即封閉,僅留下一縫。「五通」由縫中一看,見張真人在洞內,於是點起陰火焚燒,欲將真人以火煙嗆死。真人禁錮於洞,聽到洞外「五通」與群魔在狂歡慶賀,分食紅龜粿(一種烏龜形象的點心,內餡多為甜豆沙,多為祭祀神明、節慶時的應景食物),真人踏動罡步,想要出洞,疲憊已極,饑腸轆轆,無力作法,遂喃喃自語:「火煙熏不死我,就怕被紅龜粿粘到身上,必然喪命。」「五通」信以為真,就把紅龜粿由縫中全部丟進洞內,想粘死真人。真人遂大得於紅龜粿,飽餐一頓。故民間傳說,祭祀法主公最好的供品,就是紅龜粿。真人念動真言,請出蕭、章兩個結義兄弟前來助戰。

蕭真人、章真人一被召至,見到洞口有金光閃耀,覺得離奇,於是請出了土地神,問到打開洞口的方法,從門縫大喊「唵吽吒唎道友禁魔不禁我」,洞口竟然自行裂開,壁上的「唵吽吒唎道人許入不許出」金字也消逝了,兩人大殺鬼卒。張真人跨步出洞,又拔劍與五通大鬥法一次,「五通」敗走。

真人法力較高,本欲追上「五通」,將之殺死。但一想「蒼天有好生之德,此怪修煉有年,法力不低,不如收為護法。」,於是打算計降之,向「五通」提出和解,並請「五通」食狗肉。「五通」法力不濟,本知必敗,見到能和解,立刻欣然應允。於是,夜半兩人在洞門口共食。真人一塊狗肉也沒有喫,只喫囊中帶著的黑豆,口中響聲不斷。「五通」遂問:「君口中嘎吱作響,何故也?」真人答:「汝運好,挾到肉,我挾到的只有骨頭,所以口中作響。」天明,五通犯了葷菜不食狗肉的禁忌,法力全失。於是張真人不費吹灰之力,把「五通」打回原形,原來「五通」是螃蟹精,真人令其悔悟,並收之為護法神將。

[編輯] 力伏蛇仙


張真人三人結義,一曰「蕭真人」,另一曰「章真人」(或曰姓洪)。三位真人得到閭山法術,法力高深、武藝精通。三人修道之時,聽說永春九龍潭石牛洞有一條千年赤色仙為害地方,動輒作祟,使得水災旱災不斷,並且要求鄉民活人獻祭,張真人兄弟聞而大怒。

三人駕風火輪入洞,洞中毒水瀰漫,不見大蛇,其實大蛇藏於洞中密處,已知來意,猛然吐信直取張真人,張真人飛騰而起,手持寶劍勒住蛇頭,怪蛇突噴黑煙,張真人頓時變為黑面。章真人焦急而臉色轉青,蕭真人怒甚,滿臉赤紅,掄起月眉,猛砍蛇身,在怪蛇掙扎中,誤傷了章真人額頭,在章真人額上留下一道刀疤,更為緊張,臉色遂更紅。終於制服此蛇,張真人念動真言,將蛇纏繞於手上,三人氣力已竭,脫去軀殼,功成行滿。即有仙樂飄飄,香花朵朵降下,踏彩雲登天。

後人塑造法主真君三兄弟神像,即是依照此傳說,張真人為黑面,蕭真人紅面、章真人青面,額部有一條刀痕。

[編輯] 盜雨監雷


張慈觀真人得知福建旱災,民生艱苦,頗動悲心,飛身潛入天庭,發現閩人註定有劫,故不降雨。於是將玉帝洗筆之水倒下福建,遂黑雨遍降,消解旱災,且因黑雨為天上仙水,故農作物長得極快,幾近一日長成。

玉帝法眼一觀,發現是張真人,遂命雷神持天書逮捕張真人治罪;雷神動起雷光尋找張真人,張真人靈機一動,化身作監察神「御史真君」,手持乾坤囊至,考察雷神,問雷神辦事可有天書玉旨。雷神忠厚,遂將天書與之。御史開天書一覽,說:「天書詔曰:遣張慈觀擒拿雷神問審,爾其欽哉。」雷神大驚,謂是天庭將天書寫錯。御史說:「君且在我囊中休息,我為君向玉皇天尊請示,以免誤事。」雷神感謝,於是入袋。慈觀真人向袋口細細叮嚀:「君且莫出聲。」雷神聽成「君且出聲。」於是不斷鳴雷,一時間天庭震動。

因天上連連巨響,眾仙震怒,於是要找出雷神,此時張慈觀真人遂答稟雷神在自己手上,並將自己為何要違犯天條之理由稟告玉帝玉帝甚感張真人誠實之意、愛民之心,不但赦免其罪,還封張為「監雷御史法主真君」,以監督雷神。

[編輯] 送離瘟神


張真人成道以後,在安溪永春福州都享香火。一次,瘟神永春行瘟,一時病人甚多。張真人遂與該瘟神打賭,若輸,可將廟宇讓給瘟神,否則請瘟神離去,瘟神允諾。

於是兩神相鬥七晝夜,僵持不下,瘟神於是在廟門設幕府,動起干戈,部將諸軍包圍真人之廟,陰風陣陣,夜半刀兵之聲不絕。張真人有監雷之權,早將雷神五營六甲神兵埋伏於廟,以俟後變;此時真人躍登法壇,動起雷法,雷神等一氣衝出,將瘟神部隊圍住。

瘟神知道張真人法力甚高,又具謀略,遂告知真人:「吾代天巡狩,意在難『在劫之人』,今此鄉在劫之人幾盡;君當入武夷山採藥,重者仍不可治,輕者可存。」真人知道瘟神亦奉天命,來收劫數中人的性命,不得不為,遂贈之以酒食紙錢,送之離去。

瘟神既離,真人遂入山,訪武夷真君,採草藥與眾人服食,病者逐漸痊癒。從此,永春人除瘟疫都奉祀法主公,而非沿海人除瘟疫的王爺信仰

[編輯] 杜絕斂財


泉州有某尊王信徒,時常迎接其神明神像在各地展開廟會,四處對鄉民派斂香火錢,永春州人頗苦之,唯不敢言。法主聖君一日降乩曰:「豈為真虔,莫非要錢?若恨垂涎,廟金換鉛。」意思是將法主公廟弄得破破舊舊,避免神棍垂涎。信徒依照此言行動,神棍隊伍一至永春法主公廟,發現法主公廟變得十分破舊,覺得怪異,因而詢問。廟方回應「近來永春災荒,人民困窘,才會連法主公廟都這麼窮困。」神棍只好將神明鑾駕返回,徒費銀錢數萬。

[編輯] 降伏邪道


時,有道人自言奉羅祖教,能呼風喚雨之術,在泉州勸眾捐資,以便老母收圓,時頗惑眾,有民賣妻子田產以隨之者,道人遂殷富,魚肉鄉里,甚至威逼店家納香火錢,否則聚徒眾鬧事,一日輿過法主真君廟,忽見一巨急祟出,轎夫大驚,墜地,道士仆倒,懷裏銀錢四散,即不見。道人怒曰:「廟有邪鬼害我」,仗劍入廟,廟中有聲,厲曰:「老母何在?」,道人手、足竟自起火燃燒,滾地,廟內香客助以滅火,火滅時,道人已瘋癲矣。

[編輯] 支派


[編輯] 烏頭與三奶分支


臺灣閭山派分為兩支,閩南語俗謂「死歸法主,生派夫人」。

一支將法術高強的法主公奉為祖師,並以黑頭巾作為派系之標記,以喪禮法事、超渡驅邪等見長,人稱「法主公派」,臺灣人稱之為「烏頭法師」,亦稱「烏頭派」。

另一支,奉臨水夫人等三位女神為祖師,以紅頭巾作為標記,稱作「三奶派」,又稱「紅頭法師」,專作節慶、廟宇做等法事。

[編輯] 法主公傳承


法主公信仰於福建福州永泰仙遊德化永春安溪等縣頗為盛行,而安溪之茶葉商人信奉尤誠,安溪許多茶商將法主公與清水祖師並列,視為重要之保護神。

17世紀後,渡臺的安溪茶商,將法主公香火帶入臺北,法主公信仰,遂成為流行的臺灣民間信仰之一。此信仰尤其流行於安溪族群聚集處,其中以臺北法主公廟最為著名。

客家人亦有信奉法主公者,謂法主公能保佑農產,更能防備生番臺灣原住民出草獵首。但是客家人多半祭祀「張、蕭、劉、連」四法主,此四法主,也被認為是五營神將的其中四位。

In Search of Fazhu Gong Sheng Jun’s footsteps聖君腳印    by Pet Kong

The journey started in 22nd August 2007, on a fateful day when I was introduced to my late master. Sifu Po (Surabaya, Indonesia).

To cut the long short, my ‘guidance’ divinity保護神 was Fazhu Gong Sheng Jun.

I travelled to Dehua, Malaysia, Indonesia (Surabaya and Jakarta) and now at Taiwan in search of Fazu Gong Sheng Jun’s footsteps

Fazhu Gong was highly respected and prayed by most people in Fujian福建, China;

Especially in Yongchun永春, Yongtai永泰, Kimsh金沙, Dehua德化, Xianyou仙遊, Jiudu九鹿 and most of the northern Fujian provinces北福建.

The Saikong (Taoist spiritual priests) too, prayed to Fazhu Gong as their trade guidance/protection god.

Folks always depicted想像 Fazhu Gong as having a black face with long free flowing hair, bare footed赤腳, stepping on fire-wheels.

One snake coiled around him and on his right hand holding a magical sword. He had a very fierce兇 look and big round eyes.

On his forehead, there’s huge ‘lump’額. All these features had interesting story behind them. Here’s a short synopsis簡述 on these special features of Fazhu Gong Sheng Jun.

Fazhu Gong was born in 1139 AD. His name was Zhang Ci Guan張慈觀.

One day when his father was collecting wood in the mountain, he was attacked by a huge wolf.

Just when the wolf was about to bite him, a child ‘appeared’ with a sword and chased the wolf away!

Thus saving his father. Later when Ci Guan father reached home, he realized that the ‘child’ was his son, Ci Guan!

When Ci Guan was five year old, His father fell sick. A filial孝順 Ci Guan stayed by his side all day taking care of all his needs and even brew herbal medicines for his father.

Unfortunately his father soon passed away. As the family was very poor, Ci Guan had to followed his mother to work in the field

When He was seven years old, He was sent to his aunty姑姑 to look after because his mother decided to remarry.

Ci Guan stayed at his aunty house and help tender the house-keeping and also look after the domestic animals.

Ci Guan was accepted by Taoist spiritual priest Zhou Zou and learned martial art and Taoist teachings. He worked in the field growing vegetables in the day time and in the night, He studied diligently and practiced his martial skills. One winter, it was very very cold. As there was no more woods to start a fire, Zi Guan put both his leg into the fire stove and using his ‘Qi’ (internal energies), slowly started a fire. The sound from the cracking fire wakened his aunty. She came into the kitchen to find what was happening and was stocked to find Zi Guan’s legs in the fire. She screamed out. This frightened Ci Guan and He immediately jumped out of the window. Words soon spread and folks considered Him to be an Immortal.

Ci Guan roamed from places to places doing odd jobs for His daily meals. He came to a village in Yongtai. One day, he ventured into the mountain to collect woods and saw two Sages/Immortals, with similar appearance and dressed in Taoist high priest robes playing chess. Beside the chess board there was a half red half green big peach. Ci Guan approaches and observes the game with interest. The Sage offer the peach to Ci Guan. After eating half of the peach, Ci Guan quietly discard the balance half peach as it does not taste good. On seeing this, one of the Sages immediately told Ci Guan to leave.

Ci Guan then left for home, carrying the day-collected wood. On the way, he rested at a pavilion. Nearby, there was a temple, GengYi Ting and there lived a famous Taoist High priest by the name of Master Fang Long Shu. Ci Guan consulted this Master and related the day event. Master Fang Long Shu then explained that these two Sages/Immortals are non other than Tai Shang Lao Jun and Yuan Shi Tian Cun. And the half red half green peach was a three thousand years heavenly peach! If Ci Guang had completely eaten the whole peach he would have gained deity-hood and able to ride the cloud (that is, travel/fly on a cloud). However, since he only eat half the peach, Ci Guan would have to cultivate and practice longer and do more salvations (good deeds) in saving human sufferings and terminating devils and demons.

Ci Guan then asked the Master how could he meet these two Immortals again.

However, the Master advised. “On the 16th day of the 8th lunar Month, you and your two brothers, Xiao Ming of Xian You and Zhang Min of JiuDu, must go to Yang Jiao Zhou, Fuzhou and wait there. When you saw a boat in the middle of the river, the three of you can ride this magic boat which will take you to Lv shan to learn and practice Taoist skills and martial arts and cultivates. After which, you three will achieve deity-hood and will reach a high level.

Ci Guan immediately set-off as instructed and headed towards Lv shan, where he learned many mantras and scriptures and advanced in this Taoist skills.

On the 49th day, he mastered all the thirty six heavenly stellar formations, 72 various Earthly stems combination and divination methods and many Taoist skills. In their spare time, Ci Guan will chop wood to keep fit. Zhang Min (later known as Zhang Gong) plotted the land and planted rice. Xiao Ming (later known as Xiao Gong) pounded and grinded herbs into powder to make medicines as per Master Zhou Zou. In their spare time, Ci Guan will chop wood to keep fit. Zhang Min plotted the land and planted rice. Xiao Ming pounded and grinded herbs into powder to make medicines as per Master Zhou Zou. After 4 years of intensive training and practices, Ci Guan was now so strong and fit that he can lift a 500 lbs stone and leaps very high.

One day, suddenly the weather changed drastically. The sky darkened and strong wind blows. The three brothers decided to leave the mountain to investigate. On the way, the whole forest suddenly gone up in flames, the river boiled and rose violently. In the mist of all this sudden violent happenings, a huge python appeared in the distant. A crow-faced deity that was causing all this disturbances. The three brother concentrate and focus on this “things”, they realized that it the coming of the Heavenly Master. The Heavenly Master instructed: “Ci Guan, you must go help capture the devilish demon. Zhang Min Xiao Ming, you two have other assignments.” Thus the three brothers departed on their separate way. Ci Guan requested for a protective weapons. The Heavenly Master advised: :Your wood cutting tools are your protective treasures. It will protect you against any evil spirits.”  Ci Guan bowed, thanks the Heavenly Master and took leave, hastily returning to the chaotic and troubled human world.

On the way, Ci Guan reached a mystic island where he saw two hemp ropes on the path. The two hemp rope suddenly turned into two huge long snakes. One of them quietly stole away. Ci Guan quickly seized it but it quickly coiled rounded his neck. With his magical skill learned from his Heavenly Master, he finally managed to control the snake. Various magical colors radiated in its eyes and its loud breathing sound can be heard from a distant. This snake became a precious protective weapon. (This is why there’s always a snake coiled rounded one of his hands).

There are many devil and demons termination legends to numerous to mention here but the most famous was the battle with the Five Mountain sprits

He was traveling on his mission and reached the village of Jiao Xi, Shi Gu Yan. Ci Guan noticed a brilliant light coming from the direction of Shi Nui Shan. He immediately realized that there’s an evil force presented. Ci Guan went there to exterminate this evil force. The battle with the Five demons is the most famous of Zhang Gong's feat. Ci Guan learned from the locals that this day, the demons are taking a young maiden as its bride. In order to save the life of this poor maiden, Ci Guan disguised as the bride and sat on the bride sedan chair and was carried to the demon’s hideout in the mountain cave. Upon reaching the demon hideout cave, Ci Guan revealed his true identity. Soon a ferocious battle begins. It was so violence that it caused huge sand storms. Rock flew in all directions. This fierce struggle goes on for a long time and as the demons had numerous assistances eventually Ci Guan was locked inside the cave. The demons set fires and burnt Ci Guan for seven days and seven nights till Ci Guan’ face turned black and his hair charred.

Ci Guan was totally exhausted and hungry. He said loudly, I'm not afraid of heat nor smoke. I'm only afraid that you (the demons) throw bun at me! On hearing this, the demons immediately threw buns (through a small opening) at Ci Guan. Ci Guan quickly ate all the buns and now having regained his energy, used a Taoist mantra/spell to called for help. Ci Guan, Lang Ming and Lang Rui then combined their skills & power and finally subdued these 5 devils. These devils then become the Wu Tong Gui (Five Pass Devils) and kept as their protective assistances.

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